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History

BOHOL
PHILIPPINES

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Underground Movement

          In the early part of 1942 after a fierce battle between the Japanese invaders and the Filipino-American forces, Cebu surrendered and was occupied by the Japanese soldiers. In the middle part of May 1942 the first batch of Japanese soldiers entered Tagbilaran and occupied Bohol. They established garrisons in Tagbilaran  and in Guindulman as their bases of operation.

          A small group of Filipino soldiers who were in hiding in the Central part of Bohol organized a guerilla unit under the command of Ismael Ingeniero, then a USAFFE lieutenant. Another group of Filipino soldiers who were hiding in the mountains of Guindulman organized a guerilla movement under the command of Esteban Bernido. These two troops of guerilla units were merged into Bohol Area Command (BAC) under the command of the fiery guerilla leader, Major Ismael Ingeniero and Chief of Staff Esteban Bernido. Two officers from the Philippine Military Academy namely Major Sofio Bayron and Major Heracleo Alano joined the staff together with a Philippine Air force pilot Nick Torrefranca.

          A civil government for free Bohol was organized and in a conference held in Batuan with the members of the Provincial Board and Atty. Conrado Marapao (who became governor) agreed that the civil government will continue to function despite the Japanese presence in Tagbilaran and Guindulman with the coordination of the Bohol Area Command. Upon instruction of governor Marapao the Bohol Bolo Batalion and the WAS (Women Auxiliary Service) were activated after it was disbanded during the occupation of Bohol by the Japanese and were affiliated with the BAC. Almost all able-bodied men and women, government officials, teachers, civic and religious organizations joined the Bolo Battalions and WAS organization. Bolo men on one hand were assigned to guard check points and outposts, relay food supply and other important matters from different detachments to the firing lines and headquarters of the BAC. The women (WAS) on the other hand did a great and noble job not only in taking care of the wounded guerilla soldiers, but also in weaving mats, preparing food, making home made cigarettes and entertaining the soldiers by presenting plays and musical programs to boost their morale. Others were planting crops and vegetables besides rice and corn which increased foodstuff stock, enough to feed the soldiers and civilian evacuees from nearby islands.

          The seat of the Resistance Government of Bohol was in Carmen. Colonel W. Fertigue of the U.S. Army (Mindanao) through radiogram received confirmation of Atty. Conrado Marapao, Sr.'s appointment as governor of Free Local Civil Government of Bohol on May 21,1943 by designated President Manuel Roxas, and the authorization to print emergency notes with the appointment of Provincial auditor Dalmacio Ramos, Sr. as Chairman of the Currency Board, Treasurer Doroteo Toledo and Fiscal Jose Borromeo as members of the board. Also included were the appointment of government officials who served the Free Local Civil Government in Carmen whose appointments were all approved and confirmed by President in exile Manuel L. Quezon and General Douglas MacArthur.

          The Bohol Area Command (BAC) general headquarters was in Maitum, Catigbian, a wooded area between Batuan and Catigbian that later on became "Behind the Clouds", which served as a secret guerilla headquarters where most guerilla strategic plans were decided and where the enemy soldiers and spies were tried and silenced. It was a strictly forbidden place for civilians and served as meeting place for guerilla contact boys. It was in this place where the Moalong and Ubujan ambushcades plans were hatched and decided.

Significant Historical Developments

          Historical Setting                                Muslim Raids On Bohol Coastal Towns
          Sikatuna, The Bohol Chieftain             
Dagohoy, The Celebrated Hero Of Bohol
          How Bohol Got Its Name                    
Bohol Participation in the Philippine Revolution
         
Christianization of the Natives              Lonoy, Jagna Massacre

Bits of World War II History

          April 1942 Bombing of Jetafe                The Moalong and Ubujan Ambushcades
          June 1943 Japanese Kempatai             The Bohol Liberation
          Underground Movement                       How Bohol was Liberated

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